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  • Traducción al 26.9% - Actualizado el 2011-11-16 - Revisión 24249 - Versión ZF 1.11.x

    3.4. Create a Model and Database Table

    Before we get started, let's consider something: where will these classes live, and how will we find them? The default project we created instantiates an autoloader. We can attach other autoloaders to it so that it knows where to find different classes. Typically, we want our various MVC classes grouped under the same tree -- in this case, application/ -- and most often using a common prefix.

    Zend_Controller_Front has a notion of "modules", which are individual mini-applications. Modules mimic the directory structure that the zf tool sets up under application/, and all classes inside them are assumed to begin with a common prefix, the module name. application/ is itself a module -- the "default" or "application" module. As such, we'll want to setup autoloading for resources within this directory.

    Zend_Application_Module_Autoloader provides the functionality needed to map the various resources under a module to the appropriate directories, and provides a standard naming mechanism as well. An instance of the class is created by default during initialization of the bootstrap object; your application bootstrap will by default use the module prefix "Application". As such, our models, forms, and table classes will all begin with the class prefix "Application_".

    Now, let's consider what makes up a guestbook. Typically, they are simply a list of entries with a comment, timestamp, and, often, email address. Assuming we store them in a database, we may also want a unique identifier for each entry. We'll likely want to be able to save an entry, fetch individual entries, and retrieve all entries. As such, a simple guestbook model API might look something like this:

    // application/models/Guestbook.php

    class Application_Model_Guestbook
    {
        protected 
    $_comment;
        protected 
    $_created;
        protected 
    $_email;
        protected 
    $_id;

        public function 
    __set($name$value);
        public function 
    __get($name);

        public function 
    setComment($text);
        public function 
    getComment();

        public function 
    setEmail($email);
        public function 
    getEmail();

        public function 
    setCreated($ts);
        public function 
    getCreated();

        public function 
    setId($id);
        public function 
    getId();
    }

    class 
    Application_Model_GuestbookMapper
    {
        public function 
    save(Application_Model_Guestbook $guestbook);
        public function 
    find($id);
        public function 
    fetchAll();
    }

    __get() and __set() will provide a convenience mechanism for us to access the individual entry properties, and proxy to the other getters and setters. They also will help ensure that only properties we whitelist will be available in the object.

    find() and fetchAll() provide the ability to fetch a single entry or all entries, while save() takes care of saving an entry to the data store.

    Now from here, we can start thinking about setting up our database.

    First we need to initialize our Db resource. As with the Layout and View resource, we can provide configuration for the Db resource. We can do this with the zf configure db-adapter command:

    zf configure db-adapter \
    'adapter=PDO_SQLITE&dbname=APPLICATION_PATH "/../data/db/guestbook.db"' \
    production
    A db configuration 
    for the production has been written to the application config file.

    zf configure db-adapter \
    'adapter=PDO_SQLITE&dbname=APPLICATION_PATH "/../data/db/guestbook-testing.db"' \
    testing
    A db configuration 
    for the production has been written to the application config file.

    zf configure db-adapter \
    'adapter=PDO_SQLITE&dbname=APPLICATION_PATH "/../data/db/guestbook-dev.db"' \
    development
    A db configuration 
    for the production has been written to the application config file.

    Now edit your application/configs/application.ini file, where you'll see the following lines were added in the appropriate sections.

    application/configs/application.ini

    [production]
    ; ...
    resources.db.adapter "PDO_SQLITE"
    resources.db.params.dbname APPLICATION_PATH "/../data/db/guestbook.db"

    [testing production]
    ; ...
    resources.db.adapter "PDO_SQLITE"
    resources.db.params.dbname APPLICATION_PATH "/../data/db/guestbook-testing.db"

    [development production]
    ; ...
    resources.db.adapter "PDO_SQLITE"
    resources.db.params.dbname APPLICATION_PATH "/../data/db/guestbook-dev.db"

    Your final configuration file should look like the following:

    application/configs/application.ini

    [production]
    phpSettings.display_startup_errors 0
    phpSettings
    .display_errors 0
    bootstrap
    .path APPLICATION_PATH "/Bootstrap.php"
    bootstrap.class = "Bootstrap"
    appnamespace "Application"
    resources.frontController.controllerDirectory APPLICATION_PATH "/controllers"
    resources.frontController.params.displayExceptions 0
    resources
    .layout.layoutPath APPLICATION_PATH "/layouts/scripts"
    resources.view[] =
    resources.db.adapter "PDO_SQLITE"
    resources.db.params.dbname APPLICATION_PATH "/../data/db/guestbook.db"

    [staging production]

    [
    testing production]
    phpSettings.display_startup_errors 1
    phpSettings
    .display_errors 1
    resources
    .db.adapter "PDO_SQLITE"
    resources.db.params.dbname APPLICATION_PATH "/../data/db/guestbook-testing.db"

    [development production]
    phpSettings.display_startup_errors 1
    phpSettings
    .display_errors 1
    resources
    .db.adapter "PDO_SQLITE"
    resources.db.params.dbname APPLICATION_PATH "/../data/db/guestbook-dev.db"

    Note that the database(s) will be stored in data/db/. Create those directories, and make them world-writeable. On unix-like systems, you can do that as follows:

    mkdir -p data/dbchmod -R a+rwX data

    On Windows, you will need to create the directories in Explorer and set the permissions to allow anyone to write to the directory.

    At this point we have a connection to a database; in our case, its a connection to a Sqlite database located inside our application/data/ directory. So, let's design a simple table that will hold our guestbook entries.

    -- scripts/schema.sqlite.sql
    --
    -- 
    You will need load your database schema with this SQL.

    CREATE TABLE guestbook (
        
    id INTEGER NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY AUTOINCREMENT,
        
    email VARCHAR(32NOT NULL DEFAULT 'noemail@test.com',
        
    comment TEXT NULL,
        
    created DATETIME NOT NULL
    );

    CREATE INDEX "id" ON "guestbook" ("id");

    And, so that we can have some working data out of the box, lets create a few rows of information to make our application interesting.

    -- scripts/data.sqlite.sql
    --
    -- 
    You can begin populating the database with the following SQL statements.

    INSERT INTO guestbook (emailcommentcreatedVALUES
        
    ('ralph.schindler@zend.com',
        
    'Hello! Hope you enjoy this sample zf application!',
        
    DATETIME('NOW'));
    INSERT INTO guestbook (emailcommentcreatedVALUES
        
    ('foo@bar.com',
        
    'Baz baz baz, baz baz Baz baz baz - baz baz baz.',
        
    DATETIME('NOW'));

    Now that we have both the schema and some data defined. Lets get a script together that we can now execute to build this database. Naturally, this is not needed in production, but this script will help developers build out the database requirements locally so they can have the fully working application. Create the script as scripts/load.sqlite.php with the following contents:

    // scripts/load.sqlite.php

    /**
     * Script for creating and loading database
     */

    // Initialize the application path and autoloading
    defined('APPLICATION_PATH')
        || 
    define('APPLICATION_PATH'realpath(dirname(__FILE__) . '/../application'));
    set_include_path(implode(PATH_SEPARATOR, array(
        
    APPLICATION_PATH '/../library',
        
    get_include_path(),
    )));
    require_once 
    'Zend/Loader/Autoloader.php';
    Zend_Loader_Autoloader::getInstance();

    // Define some CLI options
    $getopt = new Zend_Console_Getopt(array(
        
    'withdata|w' => 'Load database with sample data',
        
    'env|e-s'    => 'Application environment for which to create database (defaults to development)',
        
    'help|h'     => 'Help -- usage message',
    ));
    try {
        
    $getopt->parse();
    } catch (
    Zend_Console_Getopt_Exception $e) {
        
    // Bad options passed: report usage
        
    echo $e->getUsageMessage();
        return 
    false;
    }

    // If help requested, report usage message
    if ($getopt->getOption('h')) {
        echo 
    $getopt->getUsageMessage();
        return 
    true;
    }

    // Initialize values based on presence or absence of CLI options
    $withData $getopt->getOption('w');
    $env      $getopt->getOption('e');
    defined('APPLICATION_ENV')
        || 
    define('APPLICATION_ENV', (null === $env) ? 'development' $env);

    // Initialize Zend_Application
    $application = new Zend_Application(
        
    APPLICATION_ENV,
        
    APPLICATION_PATH '/configs/application.ini'
    );

    // Initialize and retrieve DB resource
    $bootstrap $application->getBootstrap();
    $bootstrap->bootstrap('db');
    $dbAdapter $bootstrap->getResource('db');

    // let the user know whats going on (we are actually creating a
    // database here)
    if ('testing' != APPLICATION_ENV) {
        echo 
    'Writing Database Guestbook in (control-c to cancel): ' PHP_EOL;
        for (
    $x 5$x 0$x--) {
            echo 
    $x "\r"sleep(1);
        }
    }

    // Check to see if we have a database file already
    $options $bootstrap->getOption('resources');
    $dbFile  $options['db']['params']['dbname'];
    if (
    file_exists($dbFile)) {
        
    unlink($dbFile);
    }

    // this block executes the actual statements that were loaded from
    // the schema file.
    try {
        
    $schemaSql file_get_contents(dirname(__FILE__) . '/schema.sqlite.sql');
        
    // use the connection directly to load sql in batches
        
    $dbAdapter->getConnection()->exec($schemaSql);
        
    chmod($dbFile0666);

        if (
    'testing' != APPLICATION_ENV) {
            echo 
    PHP_EOL;
            echo 
    'Database Created';
            echo 
    PHP_EOL;
        }

        if (
    $withData) {
            
    $dataSql file_get_contents(dirname(__FILE__) . '/data.sqlite.sql');
            
    // use the connection directly to load sql in batches
            
    $dbAdapter->getConnection()->exec($dataSql);
            if (
    'testing' != APPLICATION_ENV) {
                echo 
    'Data Loaded.';
                echo 
    PHP_EOL;
            }
        }

    } catch (
    Exception $e) {
        echo 
    'AN ERROR HAS OCCURED:' PHP_EOL;
        echo 
    $e->getMessage() . PHP_EOL;
        return 
    false;
    }

    // generally speaking, this script will be run from the command line
    return true;

    Now, let's execute this script. From a terminal or the DOS command line, do the following:

    php scripts/load.sqlite.php --withdata

    You should see output like the following:

    path/to/ZendFrameworkQuickstart/scriptsphp load.sqlite.php --withdata
    Writing Database Guestbook in 
    (control-c to cancel):
    1
    Database Created
    Data Loaded
    .

    Now we have a fully working database and table for our guestbook application. Our next few steps are to build out our application code. This includes building a data source (in our case, we will use Zend_Db_Table), and a data mapper to connect that data source to our domain model. Finally we'll also create the controller that will interact with this model to both display existing entries and process new entries.

    We'll use a Table Data Gateway to connect to our data source; Zend_Db_Table provides this functionality. To get started, lets create a Zend_Db_Table-based table class. Just as we've done for layouts and the database adapter, we can use the zf tool to assist, using the command create db-table. This takes minimally two arguments, the name by which you want to refer to the class, and the database table it maps to.

    zf create db-table Guestbook guestbook
    Creating a DbTable at application
    /models/DbTable/Guestbook.php
    Updating project profile 
    'zfproject.xml'

    Looking at your directory tree, you'll now see that a new directory, application/models/DbTable/, was created, with the file Guestbook.php. If you open that file, you'll see the following contents:

    // application/models/DbTable/Guestbook.php

    /**
     * This is the DbTable class for the guestbook table.
     */
    class Application_Model_DbTable_Guestbook extends Zend_Db_Table_Abstract
    {
        
    /** Table name */
        
    protected $_name    'guestbook';
    }

    Note the class prefix: Application_Model_DbTable. The class prefix for our module, "Application", is the first segment, and then we have the component, "Model_DbTable"; the latter is mapped to the models/DbTable/ directory of the module.

    All that is truly necessary when extending Zend_Db_Table is to provide a table name and optionally the primary key (if it is not "id").

    Now let's create a Data Mapper. A Data Mapper maps a domain object to the database. In our case, it will map our model, Application_Model_Guestbook, to our data source, Application_Model_DbTable_Guestbook. A typical API for a data mapper is as follows:

    // application/models/GuestbookMapper.php

    class Application_Model_GuestbookMapper
    {
        public function 
    save($model);
        public function 
    find($id$model);
        public function 
    fetchAll();
    }

    In addition to these methods, we'll add methods for setting and retrieving the Table Data Gateway. To create the initial class, use the zf CLI tool:

    zf create model GuestbookMapper
    Creating a model at application
    /models/GuestbookMapper.php
    Updating project profile 
    '.zfproject.xml'

    Now, edit the class Application_Model_GuestbookMapper found in application/models/GuestbookMapper.php to read as follows:

    // application/models/GuestbookMapper.php

    class Application_Model_GuestbookMapper
    {
        protected 
    $_dbTable;

        public function 
    setDbTable($dbTable)
        {
            if (
    is_string($dbTable)) {
                
    $dbTable = new $dbTable();
            }
            if (!
    $dbTable instanceof Zend_Db_Table_Abstract) {
                throw new 
    Exception('Invalid table data gateway provided');
            }
            
    $this->_dbTable $dbTable;
            return 
    $this;
        }

        public function 
    getDbTable()
        {
            if (
    null === $this->_dbTable) {
                
    $this->setDbTable('Application_Model_DbTable_Guestbook');
            }
            return 
    $this->_dbTable;
        }

        public function 
    save(Application_Model_Guestbook $guestbook)
        {
            
    $data = array(
                
    'email'   => $guestbook->getEmail(),
                
    'comment' => $guestbook->getComment(),
                
    'created' => date('Y-m-d H:i:s'),
            );

            if (
    null === ($id $guestbook->getId())) {
                unset(
    $data['id']);
                
    $this->getDbTable()->insert($data);
            } else {
                
    $this->getDbTable()->update($data, array('id = ?' => $id));
            }
        }

        public function 
    find($idApplication_Model_Guestbook $guestbook)
        {
            
    $result $this->getDbTable()->find($id);
            if (
    == count($result)) {
                return;
            }
            
    $row $result->current();
            
    $guestbook->setId($row->id)
                      ->
    setEmail($row->email)
                      ->
    setComment($row->comment)
                      ->
    setCreated($row->created);
        }

        public function 
    fetchAll()
        {
            
    $resultSet $this->getDbTable()->fetchAll();
            
    $entries   = array();
            foreach (
    $resultSet as $row) {
                
    $entry = new Application_Model_Guestbook();
                
    $entry->setId($row->id)
                      ->
    setEmail($row->email)
                      ->
    setComment($row->comment)
                      ->
    setCreated($row->created);
                
    $entries[] = $entry;
            }
            return 
    $entries;
        }
    }

    Now it's time to create our model class. We'll do so, once again, using the zf create model command:

    zf create model Guestbook
    Creating a model at application
    /models/Guestbook.php
    Updating project profile 
    '.zfproject.xml'

    We'll modify this empty PHP class to make it easy to populate the model by passing an array of data either to the constructor or a setOptions() method. The final model class, located in application/models/Guestbook.php, should look like this:

    // application/models/Guestbook.php

    class Application_Model_Guestbook
    {
        protected 
    $_comment;
        protected 
    $_created;
        protected 
    $_email;
        protected 
    $_id;

        public function 
    __construct(array $options null)
        {
            if (
    is_array($options)) {
                
    $this->setOptions($options);
            }
        }

        public function 
    __set($name$value)
        {
            
    $method 'set' $name;
            if ((
    'mapper' == $name) || !method_exists($this$method)) {
                throw new 
    Exception('Invalid guestbook property');
            }
            
    $this->$method($value);
        }

        public function 
    __get($name)
        {
            
    $method 'get' $name;
            if ((
    'mapper' == $name) || !method_exists($this$method)) {
                throw new 
    Exception('Invalid guestbook property');
            }
            return 
    $this->$method();
        }

        public function 
    setOptions(array $options)
        {
            
    $methods get_class_methods($this);
            foreach (
    $options as $key => $value) {
                
    $method 'set' ucfirst($key);
                if (
    in_array($method$methods)) {
                    
    $this->$method($value);
                }
            }
            return 
    $this;
        }

        public function 
    setComment($text)
        {
            
    $this->_comment = (string) $text;
            return 
    $this;
        }

        public function 
    getComment()
        {
            return 
    $this->_comment;
        }

        public function 
    setEmail($email)
        {
            
    $this->_email = (string) $email;
            return 
    $this;
        }

        public function 
    getEmail()
        {
            return 
    $this->_email;
        }

        public function 
    setCreated($ts)
        {
            
    $this->_created $ts;
            return 
    $this;
        }

        public function 
    getCreated()
        {
            return 
    $this->_created;
        }

        public function 
    setId($id)
        {
            
    $this->_id = (int) $id;
            return 
    $this;
        }

        public function 
    getId()
        {
            return 
    $this->_id;
        }
    }

    Lastly, to connect these elements all together, lets create a guestbook controller that will both list the entries that are currently inside the database.

    To create a new controller, use the zf create controller command:

    zf create controller Guestbook
    Creating a controller at
        application
    /controllers/GuestbookController.php
    Creating an index action method in controller Guestbook
    Creating a view script 
    for the index action method at
        application
    /views/scripts/guestbook/index.phtml
    Creating a controller test file at
        tests
    /application/controllers/GuestbookControllerTest.php
    Updating project profile 
    '.zfproject.xml'

    This will create a new controller, GuestbookController, in application/controllers/GuestbookController.php, with a single action method, indexAction(). It will also create a view script directory for the controller, application/views/scripts/guestbook/, with a view script for the index action.

    We'll use the "index" action as a landing page to view all guestbook entries.

    Now, let's flesh out the basic application logic. On a hit to indexAction(), we'll display all guestbook entries. This would look like the following:

    // application/controllers/GuestbookController.php

    class GuestbookController extends Zend_Controller_Action
    {
        public function 
    indexAction()
        {
            
    $guestbook = new Application_Model_GuestbookMapper();
            
    $this->view->entries $guestbook->fetchAll();
        }
    }

    And, of course, we need a view script to go along with that. Edit application/views/scripts/guestbook/index.phtml to read as follows:

    <!-- application/views/scripts/guestbook/index.phtml -->

    <
    p><a href="<?php echo $this->url(
        array(
            'controller' => 'guestbook',
            'action'     => 'sign'
        ),
        'default',
        true) ?>"
    >Sign Our Guestbook</a></p>

    Guestbook Entries: <br />
    <
    dl>
        <?
    php foreach ($this->entries as $entry): ?>
        <dt><?php echo $this->escape($entry->email?></dt>
        <dd><?php echo $this->escape($entry->comment?></dd>
        <?php endforeach ?>
    </dl>
    [Nota] Checkpoint

    Now browse to "http://localhost/guestbook". You should see the following in your browser:

    [Nota] Using the data loader script

    The data loader script introduced in this section (scripts/load.sqlite.php) can be used to create the database for each environment you have defined, as well as to load it with sample data. Internally, it utilizes Zend_Console_Getopt, which allows it to provide a number of command line switches. If you pass the "-h" or "--help" switch, it will give you the available options:

    Usageload.sqlite.php options ]
    --
    withdata|-w         Load database with sample data
    --env|-[  ]         Application environment for which to create database
                          
    (defaults to development)
    --
    help|-h             Help -- usage message)]]

    The "-e" switch allows you to specify the value to use for the constant APPLICATION_ENV -- which in turn allows you to create a SQLite database for each environment you define. Be sure to run the script for the environment you choose for your application when deploying.

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